Style Guide


Style Guide


The Museum Scholar publishes articles of up to 5,000 words, not including endnotes. Prepare all text in Microsoft Word using embedded endnotes. Double-space the text, with one space between sentences, and use Times New Roman 12-pt. font throughout.

The text must be grammatically correct, logical, clear, and concise. Do not use the passive voice if it is possible to use the active voice, and please eliminate unnecessary words. Write in an accessible style, and avoid or explain jargon and acronyms where possible so non-museum experts can understand your material. The journal has an international readership, so authors should consider those who are non-native English speakers or readers.

Article titles must be comprehensible, but not vague. Please be aware of abstracting and indexing services when crafting a title for the manuscript, and provide one or two essential keywords in each title that will be beneficial for web search results. 

Please remove any first-person references, acknowledgments, or information that might identify the author to the reviewer. If the manuscript is accepted, these can be added to the text later.

Follow American spelling (medieval, not mediaeval; facade, not façade). In the main text, excerpts in foreign languages should be rendered in English translation or paraphrased, with the original language given in the endnotes. Write institution names in the original language: “Musée du Louvre” not “Louvre Museum.”

Italics should be used for titles of books and periodicals, unfamiliar terms, and short phrases in a foreign language. For questions about whether a word should be italicized, please consult Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition. In general, if a word appears in Merriam-Webster’s, it does not require italics.

All Rogers Publishing imprints follow the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition.


Your abstract (up to 250 words) should provide a clear idea of the main argument and conclusions of your work, and include your keywords. Adopt an impersonal voice rather than using personal pronouns: “This article discusses...” rather than: “In this article, I discuss...” Abstracts cannot be more than one paragraph in length and cannot contain the following: lists, tables, endnotes, or graphics. In addition to your title, your abstract will be the primary means by which readers are led to your content.


Please suggest 3–5 keywords for your manuscript that will help enable the text to be searchable online. Keywords are equivalent to terms in an index in a printed work, and help distinguish the most important ideas, names, and concepts.


  • Should be one word, though two- and three-word specialist terms are also acceptable where necessary
  • Should appear in your abstract
  • Should not be too generalized
  • Cannot contain punctuation
  • Must be all lower case except for proper nouns


Place any acknowledgments before the first endnote with no asterisk or number. Do not provide acknowledgments at the time of submission. It will be possible to add Acknowledgments prior to publication. 


Each figure, image, or table of any kind (including photographs, maps, charts, and graphs) must be submitted in separate files through the online submission software. File names of figures should follow the convention: “Smith_figure01.png.”


To indicate ideal figure placement in the text, please place a bracketed, sequentially numbered “callout” on a separate line in the manuscript between paragraphs that indicates placement: [Figure 1 here]. Do not embed figures in the manuscript text file.

When referring to illustrations in the text, use fig. or figs. inside parentheses (e.g., fig. 1, figs. 2–4). All images must be called out in the main text.


Include the sequentially numbered list of figures that matches the “callouts” in the manuscript with the proper caption and credit line (or source) at the end of the main text, before the endnotes.

Example content required for the List of Figures:
Figure 1. Description of what is being illustrated, including location and date (if relevant). Permissions and copyright information (typically dictated by the copyright holder).

If information such as nationality, life dates, medium, dimensions, or location is either unknown or TK (to come), indicate this.

Give titles of artworks in English unless the foreign-language title is inscribed on the work itself or the work is widely known by its foreign-language title alone.

When illustrating materials from large archival collections, please include box and folder numbers (or other such locators) after the accession number, as appropriate.


Low-resolution images are sufficient at the time of submission. High-resolution images (300 dpi) and copyright permissions to reproduce the images are required upon manuscript acceptance.

TMS requires non-exclusive world distribution rights in English; the right to publish in electronic format; and the right to deposit in electronic archives. We cannot accept restricted use to a specific time; required payment of renewal fees; or restrictions on access to the material. Please submit scans of all permission forms via the manuscript submission software. 



Endnotes and Bibliography - examples


Endnotes and Bibliography - examples

To insert endnotes, use your software’s built-in note-making feature. Endnotes will be placed at the end of the article. If you feel there is a compelling reason for placing notes at the foot of each page, please contact the editor@themuseumscholar.org.

The following examples illustrate citations using endnotes and bibliography. Examples of endnotes are followed by shortened versions of citations to the same source. For more details and examples, see chapter 14 of The Chicago Manual of Style.


One author
1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.
2. Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3.

Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.


Two or more authors
1. Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52.
2. Ward and Burns, War, 59–61.

Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.


For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the bibliography. In the endnote, list only the first author, followed by et al. (meaning “and others”):
1. Dana Barnes et al., Plastics: Essays on American Corporate Ascendance in the 1960s . . .
2. Barnes et al., Plastics . . .


Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author
1. Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 91–92.
2. Lattimore, Iliad, 24.

Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.


Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author
1. Gabriel García Márquez, Love in the Time of Cholera, trans. Edith Grossman (London: Cape, 1988), 242–55.
2. García Márquez, Cholera, 33.

García Márquez, Gabriel. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by Edith Grossman. London: Cape, 1988.


Chapter or other part of a book
1. John D. Kelly, “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War,” in Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency  ed. John D. Kelly et al. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 77.
2. Kelly, “Seeing Red,” 81–82.

Kelly, John D. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War.” In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency  edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.


Chapter of an edited volume originally published elsewhere (as in primary sources)
1. Quintus Tullius Cicero, “Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship,” in Rome: Late Republic and Principate  ed. Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White, vol. 2 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization  ed. John Boyer and Julius Kirshner (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 35.
2. Cicero, “Canvassing for the Consulship,” 35.

Cicero, Quintus Tullius. “Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship.” In Rome: Late Republic and Principate  edited by Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White. Vol. 2 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization  edited by John Boyer and Julius Kirshner, 33–46. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986. Originally published in Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, trans., The Letters of Cicero, vol. 1 (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908).


Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book
1. James Rieger, introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), xx–xxi.
2. Rieger, introduction, xxxiii.

Rieger, James. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi–xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.


Book published electronically
If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, list a URL; include an access date. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title, chapter number, or other identifier.
1. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), Kindle edition.
2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), accessed February 28, 2010, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.
3. Austen, Pride and Prejudice.
4. Kurland and Lerner, Founder’s Constitution, chap. 10, doc. 19.

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle edition.
Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Accessed February 28, 2010. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.


Article in a print journal
In an endnote, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the bibliography, list the page range for the whole article.
1. Joshua I. Weinstein, “The Market in Plato’s Republic,” Classical Philology 104 (2009): 440.
2. Weinstein, “Plato’s Republic,” 452–53.

Weinstein, Joshua I. “The Market in Plato’s Republic.” Classical Philology 104 (2009): 439–58.


Article in an online journal
Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if the journal lists one. A DOI is a permanent ID that will lead to the original source when appended to http://dx.doi.org/. If no DOI is available, list a URL. Include an access date.
1. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010, doi:10.1086/599247.
2. Kossinets and Watts, “Origins of Homophily,” 439.

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.


Newspaper and magazine articles may be cited in running text (“As Sheryl Stolberg and Robert Pear noted in a New York Times article on February 27, 2010, . . .”) instead of in an endnote. If you consulted the article online, include a URL and access date. If no author is identified, begin the citation with the article title.
1. Daniel Mendelsohn, “But Enough about Me,” New Yorker, January 25, 2010, 68.
2. Sheryl Gay Stolberg and Robert Pear, “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote,” New York Times  February 27, 2010, accessed February 28, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/us/politics/28health.html.
3. Mendelsohn, “But Enough about Me,” 69.
4. Stolberg and Pear, “Wary Centrists.”

Mendelsohn, Daniel. “But Enough about Me.” New Yorker, January 25, 2010.
Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, and Robert Pear. “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote.” New York Times  February 27, 2010. Accessed February 28, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/us/politics/28health.html.


1. David Kamp, “Deconstructing Dinner,” review of The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals  by Michael Pollan, New York Times, April 23, 2006, Sunday Book Review, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/23/books/review/23kamp.html.
2. Kamp, “Deconstructing Dinner.”

Kamp, David. “Deconstructing Dinner.” Review of The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals  by Michael Pollan. New York Times, April 23, 2006, Sunday Book Review. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/23/books/review/23kamp.html.


1. Mihwa Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008).
2. Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires.”

Choi, Mihwa. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008.


1. Rachel Adelman, “‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition” (paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24, 2009).
2. Adelman, “Such Stuff as Dreams.”

Adelman, Rachel. “ ‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition.” Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24, 2009.


A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text or in a note (“As of July 19, 2008, the McDonald’s Corporation listed on its website . . .”). If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date or, if available, a date that the site was last modified.
1. “Google Privacy Policy,” last modified March 11, 2009, http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.
2. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts,” McDonald’s Corporation, accessed July 19, 2008, http://www.mcdonalds.com/corp/about/factsheets.html.
3. “Google Privacy Policy.”
4. “Toy Safety Facts.”

Google. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 11, 2009. http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.
McDonald’s Corporation. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts.” Accessed July 19, 2008. http://www.mcdonalds.com/corp/about/factsheets.html.


Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text (“In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog on February 23, 2010, . . .”) instead of in an endnote, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. There is no need to add pseud. after an apparently fictitious or informal name. Add the access date before the URL.
1. Jack, February 25, 2010 (7:03 p.m.), comment on Richard Posner, “Double Exports in Five Years?,” The Becker-Posner Blog  February 21, 2010, accessed March 1, 2010, http://uchicagolaw.typepad.com/beckerposner/2010/02/double-exports-in-five-years-posner.html.
2. Jack, comment on Posner, “Double Exports.”

Becker-Posner Blog, accessed March 1, 2010. The. http://uchicagolaw.typepad.com/beckerposner/.


E-mail and text messages may be cited in running text (“In a text message to the author on March 1, 2010, John Doe revealed . . .”) instead of in an endnote, and do not list it in the bibliography. The following example shows the more formal version of a note.
1. John Doe, e-mail message to author, February 28, 2010.


For items retrieved from a commercial database, add the name of the database and an accession number following the facts of publication. In this example, the dissertation cited above is shown as it would be cited if it were retrieved from ProQuest’s database for dissertations and theses.
Choi, Mihwa. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008. ProQuest (AAT 3300426).